PSS Insight is an indicator-based monitoring tool that measures progress in strengthening national pharmaceutical systems, developed by MTaPS’ predecessor USAID-funded program, Systems for Improved Access to Pharmaceuticals and Services or SIAPS (2011-2018). SIAPS designed PSS Insight as a global-level tool for monitoring pharmaceutical systems strengthening across countries over time. MTaPS reconfigured PSS Insight to become a more user-friendly national-level tool that governments can use to routinely monitor progress in strengthening their national pharmaceutical systems and inform their ongoing strengthening interventions. PSS Insight v2.0 includes 38 indicators that measure 7 critical components: pharmaceutical products and related services; policy, laws, and governance; regulatory systems; innovation, research and development, manufacturing, and trade; financing; human resources; and information. In addition, the tool measures the key system attributes of performance and resilience, and the primary system outcomes of access and use. The 38 indicators represent an attempt at striking a pragmatic balance between a low data collection and management burden and enough comprehensiveness to measure critical system components and attributes. The balance in the resulting tool means that countries can implement the monitoring regularly, with or without donor support.